This publication was prepared to help producers manage insect populations with the best available methods proven practical under Kansas conditions. It is revised annually and intended for use during this calendar year. The suggestions included here are based on experience and observations and are reliable under test conditions. Performance under actual use conditions sometimes varies in ways that cannot be predicted. Kansas State University ento¬mologists assume no responsibility for product performance, personal injury, property damage, or other types of loss resulting from the handling or use of the pesticides listed. Pesticide label directions and restrictions are subject to change, and some may have changed since this publication was written. As much as is possible, K-State Research and Extension offices are advised as use patterns change.
Except where indicated, insecticides are intended for use as foliar sprays. The first name refers to the common chemical name of the insecticide. This is followed in parentheses by the most commonly used trade name(s). Occasionally, specific formulations are listed for a particular use. Remember, it is illegal to use a pesticide in a manner that is inconsistent with the label. The user bears responsibility for correct use. Always read and follow label directions carefully. Seek help when in doubt. Additional problem-specific information may be available through the local K-State Research and Extension office.
The economics of control should be considered in any pest management decision. Because costs vary greatly over time and are influenced by factors beyond the scope of this publication, product cost in general is not considered a reason for including or omitting specific insecticide products in these recommendations. Producers should always compare product price, safety and availability when making treatment decisions.
Using Insecticides Safely
Injury or death can result from swallowing, inhaling or prolonged skin contact with insecticides.
The risk of injury due to ingestion is greatest among pets, livestock and young children. The greatest risk among users is usually as a result of skin absorption, and sometimes inhalation. Handle all pesticides with care and use them only when needed. Avoid spilling concentrates on the skin or clothing.
If a spill occurs, remove contaminated clothing immediately and wash with soap and water. If in the eyes, flush with water for 15 minutes and seek prompt medical attention. If exposed and in need of medical treatment, take the pesticide label with you. For poison control information check the Mid-America Poison Control Center web site: http://www.kumed.com/medical-services/poison-control or call their emergency phone number: 1-800-222-1222.
Wear protective equipment (respirators, clothing, etc.) as specified on the label. Bathe and change clothing frequently. Launder contaminated clothing separately from other articles in the wash.
Protect fish, wildlife and other nontarget organisms. Do not dispose of unused pesticides where the runoff may contaminate streams, lakes, ponds or drinking water supplies, nor apply in a manner that could pollute such sites.
Consider the presence of honeybees before applying insecticides. Application to blooming-stage legumes usually can be avoided. Avoid drift to beehives or adjacent blooming crops. Notify the bee owner before applications are made in the general vicinity. Applying treatment late in the day when bees are not foraging may help to reduce the risk.
Read the label carefully. It is a legal document. It tells what, where, how and when the product can be used. It is against the law to use a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the label.
The waiting or preharvest interval (PHI) refers to the time that must elapse between application and harvest. The interval usually is different for forage than grain harvest, but when not specified, the interval usually is the same regardless of the treated product. The waiting interval does not signify how long an in¬secticide will provide control following application.
The restricted entry interval (REI) specifies the time that must elapse before persons can safely return to treated fields without the use of protective clothing and/or equipment.
A number of pesticides are classified as Restricted Use products. The Kansas Department of Agriculture must certify private or commercial applicators before they can purchase or use restricted products. Some pesticide uses may be permitted by means of State of Kansas Special Local Needs (SLN) labels. The law requires that an applicator possess this label when using an SLN product.
Insecticide resistant greenbugs have been found throughout much of Kansas. Recent studies have indicated that the percentage of insecticide-resistant greenbugs is fairly low. However, the fre¬quency of resistant greenbugs would be predicted to increase if insecticide usage were to increase.
The development of insecticide resistance should not be confused with changes in greenbug biotypes that relate to overcoming resistance in particular plant varieties. The greenbug biotypes E, I and K are all distinguished based on the responses of particular sorghum hybrids to their feeding. Each biotype can have both insecticide resistant and susceptible individuals.
Resistance management means taking steps to maintain the effectiveness of our insecticides over time. This is a matter of following three simple rules: 1) Always apply an insecticide at a rate within the range recommended on the product label. 2) Rotate materials. Avoid using the same product – or products with similar modes of action – on the same fields repeatedly, or in successive years. 3) Tolerate some greenbug damage. Do not apply an insecticide unless the recommended treatment threshold is clearly exceeded.
If poor performance of an insecticide cannot be attributed to improper application or extreme weather conditions, a resistant strain of insect may be present. If you experience difficulty with control, and resistance may be a reasonable cause, immediately consult your local K-State Research and Extension agent, insecticide representative or agricultural adviser for the best alternative method of control for your area.
The Endangered Species Law
Under the provisions of the federal Endangered Species Law, the use of some pesti¬cides is restricted near the nesting sites of two migratory birds in portions of Meade, Clark, Comanche, Stafford, Reno, Rice and Barton counties. At present the program is voluntary. Compliance details should be available in the K-State Research and Exten¬sion offices of affected counties, by contacting the Pesticide and Fertilizer Program at the Kansas Department of Agriculture, 785-296-3786, or by visiting the Web site -- http://www.epa.gov/espp/kansas/kansas.htm.
Note on Chemigation
Some insecticides may be applied through overhead sprinkler systems. Current information suggests that Asana, Baythroid, chlorpyrifos (numerous products), lambda-cyhalothrin (numerous products), Mustang, Proaxis, Tracer and some carbaryl (Sevin) products may be applied in this manner. Those interested in using this method must comply with the requirements established by the Kansas Chemigation Safety Law as well as all requirements listed on product labels.
For practice in identifying wheat pest problems, take the wheat quiz. It can be found on the Web page: www.ksre.k-state.edu/wheatpage/. Also see S-122, Identifying Caterpillars in Wheat. For more information about insect problems in Kansas, visit the Research and Extension Entomology home page at: www. entomology.k-state.edu and select “Extension” from the menu on the left side of the page.
Stored Grain Management
This publication deals with insects during the growing season. For information on insects that attack grain during storage see publication number: MF-917, Management of Stored Grain Insects, Part III: Structural Sprays, Pest Strips, Grain Protectants, and Surface Dressings or go to the K-State Entomology Web site on “Stored Grain Management.”
The Worker Protection Standard
The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is a series of federal regulations pertaining to pesticides used in agricultural plant production on farms, forests, nurseries and greenhouses. You must comply with these regulations if you are an agricultural pes¬ticide user and/or an employer of agricultural workers or pesticide handlers. For more complete information, consult the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency publication. The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides — How to Comply, What Employers Need to Know. This publication is available at your local K-State Research and Extension office.
Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not mentioned.
Publications from Kansas State University are available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/
Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. In each case, credit Phillip E. Sloderbeck, J.P. Michaud, and Robert J. Whitworth, Wheat Insect Management, Kansas State University.