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Department of Entomology

Department of Entomology
123 W. Waters Hall
1603 Old Claflin Place
Kansas State University
Manhattan KS 66506-4004

785-532-6154
785-532-6232 fax
entomology@ksu.edu

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Higgins, Randall A.

Higgins, Randall A. Professor (Deceased May 12, 2006)
Please contact the main office 123 W. Waters Hall 785-532-6154 Area(s) of Specialization:
Pest management -- Extension, research, and teaching. Corn, soybean, and alfalfa, emphasizing practical management options, plant stress, transgenic crops, and technology transfer.

Bio Brief

Randall “Randy” A. Higgins, 51, of Manhattan, KS, died Friday, May 12, 2006.

He was born on June 2, 1954, in Greencastle, IN, the son of Robert M. & Gloria (English) Higgins. Randy graduated from Danville High School (IN) in 1972, and earned his B.S. from Purdue University, and his M.S. and two Ph.D.s from Iowa State University. On June 28, 1975, he was united in marriage to Mary L. Meck. This union was blessed with four children: Stephanie, Keith, Ben and Michelle. The family moved to Manhattan, KS, in 1982.

Randy loved to fish, hunt, camp, garden, and farm. He loved teaching his children about the outdoors and the earth. Spending time with his family was very important to Randy. He also loved to cook for his family: barbequing, frying fish and baking brownies.

Randy was a professor of Entomology at Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. He was a teacher, researcher, and K-State Research and Extension Specialist. Randy guided 16 students to graduate degree completion. He authored and delivered hundreds of public and professional education publications and presentations. He also provided service in countless capacities to his department, college, K-State Research and Extension, university, and the profession of entomology. He was a governing board member of the Entomological Society of America and received numerous awards for his professional service.

He garnered universal admiration among all who knew him for his kindness, generosity, selflessness, and genuine dedication to and consideration for every person he met. In that respect he had no equal.

The Department is in the process of setting up a memorial fund (details of which will be available at a later date) or memorials can be sent to Randy Higgins Memorial Fund for Kansas Parks care of Yorgensen-Meloan-Londeen Funeral Home, 1616 Poyntz Avenue, Manhattan, Kansas 66502.



Education

B.S. Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 1976
M.S. Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames IA, 1978
Ph.D. Entomology & Agronomy (co-majors), Iowa State University, Ames IA, 1982

Teaching

Offered in even years. Major emphasis is to give students a realistic view of the history, structure, philosophy, and position responsibilities assumed by entomology state and area specialists within the Cooperative Extension Service through hands-on experience.



Publications

Khajuria, C., Y. C. Zhu, M.-S. Chen, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, J. Yao, A. L. B. Cresop, B. D. Siegfried, S. Muthukrishnan, and K. Y. Zhu. 2009. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis): Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance. BMC Genomics 10: 286 (1-14).


Bowling, R.D., R.A. Higgins, A. Ahmad and G. Wilde. 2007. Feeding behavior and growth of corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on Bacillus thuringiensis-treated (Dipel 4L) and untreated meridic diet. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1221-1228


Wamsley, C., G. Wilde and R. Higgins. 2006. Preliminary results of use of a mark-release-recapture technique for determining the sphere of influence of a kairomone-baited lure trap attractive to adult western corn rootworms (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79: 23-27.


Li, H. R., B. Oppert, F. Huang, R. A. Higgins, L. L. Buschman, and K. Y. Zhu. 2005. Susceptibility of Dipel-resistant and -susceptible European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to individual Bacillus thuringiensis protoxins. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4): 1333-1340.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, and R. A. Higgins. 2005. Larval survival and development of susceptible and resistant Ostrinia nubilalis on diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 7: 1-8.


Zhu, K. Y., G. E. Wilde, P. E. Sloderbeck, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, R. J. Whitworth, R. A. Bowling, S. R. Starkey, and F. He. 2005. Comparative susceptibility of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults to selected insecticides in Kansas. Journal of Economic Entomology 98 (6): 2181-2187.


Gebre-Amlak, A., J. P. Michaud, F. B. Peairs, G. L. Hein, P. E. Sloderbeck, and R. A. Higgins. 2005. Insect Pest Management, pages 16-22 within High Plains Sunflower Production Handbook. K-State Research and Extension. MF-2384. 51 pp.


Li, H., B. Oppert, R. A. Higgins, F. Huang, L. L. Buschman, J-R Gao, and K. Y. Zhu. 2005. Characterization of cDNAs encoding three trypsin-like proteinases and mRNA quantitative analysis in Bt-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 35: 847-860.


Higgins, Randall A., and Phillip E. Sloderbeck. 2005. Black cutworm management for corn in Kansas. K-State Research and Extension. MF-1105. 4 pp.


Whitworth, J., P. Sloderbeck, G. Wilde, R. Higgins, K. Y. Zhu, and L. Buschman. 2004. Western Corn Rootworm: Kansas Areawide Management Program Summary. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin MF 2642


Sloderbeck, P., L. Buschman, and R. Higgins. 2004. Soybean stem borer management trials, 2001-2003. K-State Research - Extension Center. Report of Progress 927, SRP 910. pp.41-44.


Crook, D.J., Hopper, J.A., Ramaswamy, S.B.and Higgins, R.A. 2004. Courtship behavior of the soybean stem borer Dectes texanus texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Evidence for a female contact sex pheromone. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 600-604.


Li, H. R., B. Oppert, R. A. Higgins, F. Huang, K. Y. Zhu, and L. L. Buschman. 2004. Comparative analysis of proteinase activities of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera : Crambidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (8): 753-762.


Li, H. R., J. Gonzalez-Cabrera, B. Oppert, J. Ferre, R. A. Higgins, L. L. Buschman, G. A. Radke, K. Y. Zhu, and F. Huang. 2004. Binding analyses of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac with membrane vesicles from Bacillusthuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinianubilalis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 323: 52-57.


Hyde, J., Martin, M.A., Preckel, P.V., Buschman, L.L., Edwards, C.R., Sloderbeck, P.E. and Higgins, R.A. 2003. The value of Bt corn in southwest Kansas: A Monte Carlo simulation approach. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 28: 15-33.


Sloderbeck, P. E., J. C. Reese, R. J. Whitworth, C. M. Smith, R. A. Higgins, W. T. Schapaugh, R. E. Wolf, and D. J. Jardine. 2003. The soybean aphid: A new pest in Kansas. Kansas State University Agr. Expt. Station and Cooperative Extension Service. MF-2582.


Crook, D.J., Higgins, R.A. and Ramaswamy, S.B. 2003. Antennal morphology of the soybean stemborere Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76: 397-405.


Li, H., Oppert, B., Zhu, K. Y., Higgins, R. A., Huang, F. and Buschman, L. L. 2003. Transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. Entomologica Sinica 10: 155-166.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and H. Li. 2002. Survival of Kansas Dipel-resistant European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. Journal of Economic Entomology; 95: 614-621.


Pilcher, C. D., M. E. Rice, R. A. Higgins, R. L. Hellmich, J. Witkowski, D. Calvin, K. R. Ostlie, and K. L. Steffey. 2002. Biotechnology and the European corn borer: Measuring farmer perceptions and the adoption of transgenic Bt corn as a pest management strategy. FORUM section: Journal of Economic Entomology; 95: 878-893.


Onstad, D. W., C. A. Guse, P. Porter, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, F. B. Peairs, and G. B. Chronholm. 2002. Modeling the development of resistance by stalk-boring Lepidoptera (Crambidae) in areas with transgenic corn and frequent insecticide use. Journal of Economic Entomology; 95: 1033-1043.


Guse, C. A., D. W. Onstad, L. L. Buschman, P. Porter, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, G. B. Chronholm, and F. B. Peairs. 2002. Modeling the development of resistance by stalk-boring Lepidoptera (Crambidae) in areas with irrigated transgenic corn. Environmental Entomology 31: 676-685.


Zhu, K. Y., G. E. Wilde, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Shufran, R. J. Whitworth, S. R. Starkey, and F. He. 2001, Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in areawide–managed cornfields in north central Kansas. Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (4): 929-934.


Huang, F., L. Buschman, and R. Higgins. 2001. Larval feeding behavior of Dipel-resistant and susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis on diet ocntaining Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel ES). Entomological Experiementalis et Applicata. 98: 141-148.


Pilcher, C., M. Rice, R. Higgins, and R. Bowling. 2001. Pollen drift from Bacillus thuringiensis corn: Efficacy against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in adjacent rows of non-Bt corn. Environmental Entomology; 30: 409-414.


Ortman, E. E., B. D. Barry, L. L. Buschman, D. D. Calvin, J. Carpenter, G. P. Dively, J. E. Foster, B. W. Fuller, R. L. Hellmich, R. A. Higgins, T. E. Hunt, G. P. Munkvold, K. R. Ostlie, M. E. Rice, R. T. Roush, M. K. Sears, A. M. Shelton, B. D. Siegfried, P. E. Sloderbeck, K. L. Steffey, F. T. Turpin, and J. L. Wedberg. 2001. Transgenic insecticidal corn: The agronomic and ecological rationale for its use. BioScience 51: 900-902.


Portier, C., Lewis, P., S. Roberts, D. Andow, M. Cruzan, B. Federici, R. Hellmich, E. Herman, R. Higgins, R. James, S. Malcolm, R. Miller, K. Oberhauser, I. Pepper, J. Pleasants, A. Power, M. Sears, B. Siegfried, C. Stewart, G. Stotzky, C. Taylor, and J. Willis. 2001. SAP Report No. 2000-07b, March 12, 2001. Bt Plant-Pesticides Risk and Benefit Assessments: Gene flow/outcrossing, environmental fate in the soil and non-target organism effects. U.S. EPA FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Subpanel on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plant-pesticides. pp. 34-59.


Portier, C., P. Lewis, S. Roberts, D. Andow, R. Bagwell, M. Caprio, T. Dennehy, B. Federici, F. Gould, D. Hardee, R. Hellmich, R. Higgins, T. Hurley, M. Sears, T. Shelton, and B. Siegfried. 2001. SAP Report No. 2000-07a, March 12, 2001, Bt Plant-Pesticides Risk and Benefit Assessments: Insect Resistance Management. U.S. EPA FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Subpanel on Bt plant-pesticides. pp. 5-33.


Al-Deeb, Mohammad A., Gerald E. Wilde, and Randall A. Higgins. 2001. No effect of Bacillus thuringiensis corn and Bacillus thuringiensis on the predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Environmental Entomology 30(3): 625-629.


Sloderbeck, P., L. Buschman, T. Dumler, and R. Higgins. 2000. Economic comparison of Bt-corn refuge-planting strategies for south central and southwestern Kansas. K-State Research and Extension Report of Progress 856. pp. 29-32.


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1999. Transgenic Bt-plants: Successes, challenges, and strategies. Pestology: Proceedings, II Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Conference. Mumbai, India. Vol. 23: 2-29.


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1999. Heritability and stability of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 89: 449-454.


Huang, F., K. Y. Zhu, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and B. Oppert. 1999. Comparison of midgut proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 65: 132-139.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and W. H. McGaughey. 1999. Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Dipel ES) in the European corn borer. Science 284: 965-967.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, and R. A. Higgins. 1999. Susceptibility of different instars of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Economic Entomology 92: 547-550.


Wiseman, B. R., and R. A. Higgins. 1999. Corn Pests - Insects and Related Arthropods. pp. 17-18 in Steffey, K. L., M. E. Rice, J. All, D. A. Andow, M. E. Gray, and J. W. Van Duyn (eds.), Entomological Society of America Handbook of Corn Insects. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD.


Higgins, R., L. Buschman, P. Sloderbeck, and V. Martin. 1999. Evaluation of corn borer resistance and grian yield for Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at St. John, KS. K-State Rept. Prog. 835. pp. 125-134.


Buschman, L., P. Sloderbeck, R. Higgins, and M. Witt. 1999. Corn borer resistance and grain yield for Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at Garden City, KS, 1998. K-State Rept. Prog. 837. pp. 25-29.


Higgins, R. A., and T. M. Hurley. 1999. Bt corn refuge design and deployment - High Plains production areas where joint infestations of European and southwestern corn borer occur. Proceedings EPA-USDA Workshop on Bt Crop Resistance Management. Chicago, June 18, 1999.


Wilde, G. E., R. J. Whitworth, R. A. Shufran, K. Y. Zhu, P. E. Sloderbeck, R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1998. Rootworm areawide management project in Kansas. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 15: 335-349.


Kendall, R., R. Allen, M. Caprio, T. Dennehy, F. Gould, D. Hardee, R. Hellmich, R. Higgins, W. Hutchison, R. Luttrell, K. Ostlie, B. Siegfried, M. Whalon, and J. Witkowski. 1998. Final report of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Subpanel on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plant-Pesticides and Resistance Management Meeting, Feb. 9-10, 1998. 60 pp.


NC-205 (including R. Higgins and L. Buschman. 1998. Supplement to NCR-602. Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management. 10 pp.


Bowling, R., R. A. Higgins, and L. Buschman. 1997. Corn earworm larval development on Bt and non-Bt corn. International Plant Resistance to Insects Newsletter. Vol. 23.


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1997. Baseline susceptibility and changes in susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki under selection pressure in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1137-1143.


Ostlie, K. R., W. D. Hutchison, R. L. Hellmich, J. F. Witkkowski, J. L. Wedberg, K. L. Steffey, P. E. Sloderbeck, B. D. Siegfried, M. E. Rice, C. D. Pilcher, D. W. Onstad, C. E. Mason, L. C. Lewis, D. A. Landis, A. J. Keaster, F. Huang, R. A. Higgins, M. J. Haas, M. E. Gray, K. L. Giles, J. E. Foster, P. M. Davis, D. D. Calvin, L. L. Buschman, P. C. Bolin, B. D. Barry, D. A. Andow, and D. N. Alstad. 1997. Bt corn and European corn borer: Long-term success through resistance management. NC Regional Research Project NC-205 and NC Regional Extension Publication NCR-602. 18 pp.


Zhu, Y., R. E. Charlton, and R. A. Higgins. 1997. Factors influencing quantity of cantharidin transferred to alfalfa from three-striped blister beetles Epicauta occidentalis Werner (Coleoptera: Meloidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1665-1671.


Retta, A., R. L. Vanderlip, R. A. Higgins, and L. J. Moshier. 1996. Application of SORKAM to simulate shattercane growth using forage sorghum. Agron. J. 88: 596-601.


Mason, C., M. Rice, D. Calvin, J. VanDuyn, W. Showers, W. Hutchison, J. Witkowski, R. Higgins, D. Onstad, and G. Dively. 1996. European Corn Borer Ecology and Management. NC-327. Regional Publication. Iowa State Univ. Press. 57 pp.


Blodgett, S. L., R. A. Higgins, and G. A. Milliken. 1995. Blister beetle (Coleoptera: Meloidae) mortality evaluated during alfalfa harvest. J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 398-406.


Zhu, Y., and R. A. Higgins. 1994. Body condidtion category and harvest process affect contamination of alfalfa by Epicauta occidentalis Werner (Coleoptera: Meloidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 1091-1096.


Zhu, Y., and R. A. Higgins. 1994. Host plant influences on feeding, survivorship, population distribution, and management of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) in Kansas. Environ. Entomol. 23: 1472-1479.


Zhu, Y., and R. A. Higgins. 1994. Host plant influences on feeding, survivorship, population distribution, and management of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) in Kansas. Environ. Entomol. 23: 1472-1479.


Walker, K., K. Wright, R. Higgins, and C. Griffin. 1993. A caring extension workplace. Journal of Extension. 31: 32-33.


Moulton, M., R. Higgins, S. Welch, and F. Poston. 1992. Mortality of second generation immatures of the southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 963-966.


Blodgett, S. L., J. E. Carrel, and R. A. Higgins. 1992. Cantharidin contamination of alfalfa hay. J. Med. Entomol. 29: 700-703.


Hammond, R. B., R. A. Higgins, T. P. Mack, L. P. Pedigo, and E. J. Bechinski. 1991. Soybean Pest Management. Pages 343-472 in D. Pimentel, ed., Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Vol. III. Second Edition, CRC Press.


Retta, A., R. L. Vanderlip, R. A. Higgins, L. J. Moshier, and A. M. Feyerharm. 1991. Suitability of corn growth models for incorporation of weed and insect stresses. Agron. J. 83: 757-765.


Gibb, T. J., and R. A. Higgins. 1991. Aboveground dry weight and yield responses of irrigated field corn to defoliation and root pruning stresses. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1562-1576.


Calvin, D. D., R. A. Higgins, M. C. Knapp, F. L. Poston, S. M. Welch, W. B. Showers, J. F. Witkowski, C. E. Mason, H. C. Chiang, and A. J. Keaster. 1991. Developmental consistency between geographically separate European corn borer populations. Environ. Entomol. 20: 441-449.


Higgins, R. A., M. E. Rice, S. L. Blodgett, and T. J. Gibb. 1991. Alfalfa stem removal methods and their efficiency in predicting actual numbers of alfalfa weevil larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 650-655.


Blodgett, S. L., and R. A. Higgins. 1990. Blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) in Kansas alfalfa, influence of plant phenology and proximity to field edge. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1042-1048.


Lenssen, A.W., S.L. Blodgett, R.A. Higgins, T.G. Nagaraja, G.L. Posler, and A.B. Broce. 1990. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 32: 413-416.


Higgins, R. A. 1989. Techniques for making the most of a student's graduate education: A guide for graduate faculty. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 35: 16-20.


Cuperus, G., R. Higgins, and E. Williams. 1989. Integrated pest management in 1989 Oklahoma Grain Elevator Workshop Manual. Oklahoma State University. 15 pages.


Showers, W. B., J. F. Witkowski, C. E. Mason, D. D. Calvin, R. A. Higgins, and G. P. Dively. 1989. European corn borer: Development and management. North Central Regional Publication No. 327. Iowa State Univ. Press.


Higgins, R. A., and C. Marr. 1989. KSU White Paper Studies: Agricultural Diversity and Sustainment in Kansas. Dept. Report. Ag. Diversification (R. Higgins, chair) and Sustainable Agriculture Committees (C. Marr, chair). 25 pp.


Blodgett, S. L., and R. A. Higgins. 1988. Blister beetles in Kansas: Historical perspective and results of an alfalfa survey. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 1456-1462.


Higgins, R. A., and J. P. Harner. Editors and major authors. 1988 (reprinted 1989). Stored Grain Management Handbook for Kansas. (ca. 200 pages in total).


Higgins, R. A. 1987. Different roles for grain protectants and fumigants. Report of Progress 525. pp. 101-102.


Higgins, R. A. 1987. Pre-harvest grain storage preparation. Report of Progress 525. pp. 104-105.


Bauernfeind, R., R. Higgins, and J. Harner. 1987. Variable costs of storing grain. Report of Progress 525. p. 103.


Harner, J., and R. Higgins. 1986. Maintaining stored grain quality in Kansas - An integrated extension program. Am. Soc. Ag. Eng. Paper No. MCR 86-101. 7pp.


Harner, J. P., J. P. Murphy, and R. A. Higgins. 1986. Grain storage. KSU Agronomy Farm Fall Field Days, Proceedings.


Higgins, R. A. 1985. Approaches to studying interactive stresses caused by insects and weeds. In Shibles, R. (ed.), World Soybean Research. Vol. III. pp. 641-649.


Higgins, R. A., D. W. Staniforth, and L. P. Pedigo. 1984. Effects of weed density and defoliated or undefoliated soybeans on velvetleaf development. Weed Sci. 32: 511-519.


Higgins, R. A., L. P. Pedigo, and D. W. Staniforth. 1984. Effects of velvetleaf competition and defoliation simulating a green cloverworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) outbreak in Iowa on indeterminate soybean yield, yield components, and economic decision levels. FORUM Section, Environ. Entomol. 13: 917-925.


Higgins, R. A., L. P. Pedigo, D. W. Staniforth, and I. C. Anderson. 1984. Partial growth analysis of soybeans stressed by simulated green cloverworm defoliation and velvetleaf competition. Crop Sci. 24: 289-293.


Higgins, R. A., L. P. Pedigo, and D. W. Staniforth. 1983. Selected pre-harvest morphological characteristics of soybeans stressed by simulated green cloverworm defoliation and velvetleaf competition. J. Econ. Entomol. 76: 484-491.


Pedigo, L. P., E. J. Bechinski, and R. A. Higgins. 1983. Partial life tables of the green cloverworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybean and a hypothesis of population dynamics in Iowa. Environ. Entomol. 12: 186-195.


Pedigo, L. P., R. A. Higgins, R. B. Hammond, and E. J. Bechinski. 1981. Soybean Pest Management. Pages 417-537 in D. Pimentel (ed.), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Vol. III, C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton, FL.


Higgins, R. A., and L. P. Pedigo. 1979. Evaluation of guazatine triacetate as an antifeedant/feeding deterrent for the green cloverworm on soybean. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 680-686.


Higgins, R. A., and L. P. Pedigo. 1979. A laboratory antifeedant simulation bioassay for phytophagous insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 238-244.