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Department of Entomology

Department of Entomology
123 W. Waters Hall
1603 Old Claflin Place
Kansas State University
Manhattan KS 66506-4004

785-532-6154
785-532-6232 fax
entomology@ksu.edu

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Buschman, Lawrent L.

Buschman, Lawrent L. Professor Phone: 620-276-8286 Fax: 620--276-6028 lbuschma@ksu.edu Southwest Research CenterArea(s) of Specialization:
Biology and management of insect and mite pests of corn and soybean.

Education

B.S. , Tabor College, Kansas, 1964
M.S. , Emporia State University, Kansas, 1968
Ph.D. , University of Florida, 1977

Research

The overall goal of Larry’s research program is to develop a workable pest management program for pests in corn and soybean for SW Kansas. In corn this project is focused on three major pest groups: corn rootworms, corn borers and spider mites. Annual field trials are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pesticides against these pests. Laboratory studies on the susceptibility of the corn rootworm beetles, corn borers and spider mites to insecticides used in corn are in progress in collaboration with colleagues Randy Higgins, Kun Yan Zhu, David Margolies and graduate students. He is also evaluating the field performance of Bt-corn and is investigating resistance management stratogies for corn borers in Bt-corn. Several projects are designed to evaluate the potential development of resistance to Bt corn and to develop methods of preventing the resistance development. He is currently studying corn borer dispersal and its role in IRM for Bt corn. The work with Bt corn is being done in collaboration with colleagues Randy Higgins Phil Sloderbeck and graduate students. In soybean this project is focused on the Dectes stem borer. He is conducting on the ecology and the management of this pest.

Larry also has an interest in international agricultural development and served as a Technical Assistant for three years, 1989-92, on the MIAC/Moroc Project, in Morocco. On this project he worked on the biology, host plant resistance, and pest management of Hessian fly and other pests of small grains.



Publications

Aerial insecticide treatments for management of Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus, in soybean
Sloderbeck PE, Buschman LL.
Journal of Insect Science. 2011. 11.49


Khajuria, C., L. L. Buschman, M.-S. Chen, B. D. Siegfried, and K. Y. Zhu. 2011. Identification of a novel aminopeptidase P-like gene (OnAPP) possibly involved in Bt toxicity and resistance in a major corn pest (Ostrinia nubilalis). PLoS ONE 6(8): e23983. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023983.


Khajuria, C., L. L. Buschman, M.-S. Chen, L. Zurek, and K. Y. Zhu. 2011. Characterization of six antibacterial response genes from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut and their expression in response to bacterial challenge. Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 345-355.


Khajuria, C., L. L. Buschman, M.-S. Chen, S. Muthukrishnan, and K. Y. Zhu. 2010. A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic membrane and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 40: 621-629.


A. Joshi, L. Buschman, P. Sloderbeck, J. Holman, and M. Stamm. 2010. Insect Pests of Winter Canola in Kansas. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 1034. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 55-56.


Lawrent L. Buschman and Phillip E. Sloderbeck. 2010. Pest status and distribution of the stem borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas. Journal of Insect Science. 10:198


Khajuria, C., Y. C. Zhu, M.-S. Chen, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, J. Yao, A. L. B. Cresop, B. D. Siegfried, S. Muthukrishnan, and K. Y. Zhu. 2009. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis): Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance. BMC Genomics 10: 286 (1-14).


T. Niide, L. Buschman, B. Gordon, P. Sloderbeck, A. Joshi. 2009.Yield Losses Associated with Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean and Efficacy of Fipronil Seed Treatments in Controlling Dectes Stem Borers, Garden City, 2008. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 1014. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 84-90.


T. Niide, L. Buschman, B. Gordon, P. Sloderbeck, A. Joshi. 2009. Yield Losses Associated with Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean and Efficacy of Fipronil Seed Treatments in Controlling Dectes Stem Borers, Scandia, 2008. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 1014. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 80-83.


L. Buschman, A. Joshi, and P. Sloderbeck. 2009. Efficacy of Monsanto Stacked Event Corn Hybrids for Control of Corn Earworm, Rootworm, and Southwestern and European Corn Borer, 2008. Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 1014. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 104-111.


Davis, H., L. Buschman, T. Niide, A. Joshi, and C. Khajuria. 2008. Efficacy of Fipronil Applied as Foliar and Seed Treatment to Control Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean, Garden City, KS, 2007 – Ramsey Field. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 997. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS pp 59 -63.


Buschman, L., H. Davis, and P. Sloderbeck. 2008. Efficacy of Monsanto Stacked Event Corn Hybrids for Control of Southwestern Corn Borer and Corn Earworm, 2007. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 997. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 64-68.


Davis, H., L. Buschman, P. Sloderbeck, and A. Joshi. 2008. Efficacy of Fipronil Applied as Foliar and Seed Treatment to Control Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean, Garden City, KS, 2007 – South Circle. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 997. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 49-53.


Niide, T., L. Buschman, B. Gordon, P. Sloderbeck, H. Davis, and C. Khajuria. 2008. Efficacy of Fipronil Applied as Foliar and Seed Treatment to Control Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean, Scandia, KS, 2007 Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center, Report of Report of Progress 997, June 2008. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. pp 54-58.


Buschman, L., H. Davis R. Currie and P. Sloderbeck. 2007. Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides Applied as Foliar or Seed Treatments to Control Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean at Garden City, KS, 2006. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2007, Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Report of Report of Progress 980. pp 65-67


Li, H., L.L. Buschman, K.Y. Zhu, F. Huang, and B. Oppert. 2007. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Biopesticides International 3: 96-107.

Li, H., L.L. Buschman, F.N. Huang, K.Y. Zhu, B. Bonning and B. Oppert. 2007. DiPel-Selected Ostrinia nubilalis larvae are not resistant to transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1862-1870.


Daves, C.A., R.A. Higgins, P.E. Sloderbeck, G.E. Wilde, R.J. Whitworth, K.Y. Zhu and L.L. Buschman. 2007. How Kansas Crop Consultants scout for western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Field Corn. American Entomologist 53:8-11.


Hunt, Thomas E., Lawrent L. Buschman, and Phillip E. Sloderbeck. 2007. Insecticide Use in Bt and Non-Bt Field Corn in the Western Corn Belt: As Reported by Crop Consultants in a Mail Survey. American Entomologist. 53:86-93


Stodola, T.J., D.A. Andow, A.R. Hyden, J.L. Hinton, J.J. Roark, L.L. Buschman, P. Porter, and G.B. Cronholm. 2006. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab in southern United States corn belt population of European corn borer (Lepidoptera : Crambidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 502-507


Buschman, L., and P. Sloderbeck. Efficacy of VIP & Cry1ab Event Corn Hybrids for the Control of Southwestern Corn Borer and Corn Earworm. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2006, Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Report of Progress. 961: pp 61-64.


Buschman, L., H. Davis, R. Currie and P. Sloderbeck. 2006. Efficacy of Miticides Applied Post-Tassel for Control of Spider Mites in Corn, 2005. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2006, Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, Report of Progress. 961. pp 65-69.


Buschman, L., H. Davis, R. Currie and P. Sloderbeck. 2006. Efficacy of Miticides Applied at Tassel Stage for Control of Spider Mites in Corn, 2005. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2006, Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Report of Progress. 961. pp 65-69.


Buschman, L., H. Davis and P. Sloderbeck. 2006. Efficacy of In-Season Applications of Systemic Insecticide to Control Dectes Stem Borers in Soybean. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2006, Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Report of Progress. 961. pp 65-69.


Qureshi, J.A., L.L. Buschman, J.E. Throne, and S.B. Ramaswamy. 2006. Dispersal of adult Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera : Crambidae) and its implications for corn borer resistance management in Bacillus thuringiensis maize. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99: 279-291.


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck, and M.D. Witt. 2005. Efficacy of VIP and crylab events in corn for the control of southwestern corn borer and corn earworm, 2003. Arthropod Management Tests 2005, Volume 30. M1.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, and R. A. Higgins. 2005. Larval survival and development of susceptible and resistant Ostrinia nubilalis on diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 7: 1-8.


Buschman, L.L., M.D. Witt and P.E. Sloderbeck. 2005. Eficacy of In-seson applications of systemic insecticide to control dectes stem borers in soybeans. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2005. Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and cooperative Extension Service. Report of Progress 945. pp. 53-55.


Zhu, K. Y., G. E. Wilde, P. E. Sloderbeck, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, R. J. Whitworth, R. A. Bowling, S. R. Starkey, and F. He. 2005. Comparative susceptibility of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults to selected insecticides in Kansas. Journal of Economic Entomology 98 (6): 2181-2187.


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck. R.S. and M.D. Witt. 2005. Efficacy of VIP- and Crylab-Event Corn hybrids for the control of southwestern corn borer and corn earworm. Southwest Kansas Research-Extension Center Field Day 2005. Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension service. Report of Progress 945. pp. 49-52


Qureshi, J.A., L.L. Buschman, J.E. Throne, and S.B. Ramasamy. 2005. Adult dispersal of Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its implications for resistance management in Bt-maize. Journal of Applied Entomology 129: 281-292


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck, and R.S. Currie. 2005. Efficacy of post-tassel miticide applications against spider mites and yield response in corn, 2003c. Arthropod management Tests 2005, Volume 30. F13.


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck, and R.S. Currie. 2005. Efficacy of early seson miticide applications against spider mites and yield response in corn, 2003b. Arthropod Management Tests 2005, Volume 30. F13.


Li, H., B. Oppert, R. A. Higgins, F. Huang, L. L. Buschman, J-R Gao, and K. Y. Zhu. 2005. Characterization of cDNAs encoding three trypsin-like proteinases and mRNA quantitative analysis in Bt-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 35: 847-860.


Li, H. R., B. Oppert, F. Huang, R. A. Higgins, L. L. Buschman, and K. Y. Zhu. 2005. Susceptibility of Dipel-resistant and -susceptible European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to individual Bacillus thuringiensis protoxins. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4): 1333-1340.


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck, and R.S. Currie. 2005. Efficacy of early season miticide applications against spider mites and yield reposnse in corn, 2003a. Arhtopod Management Tests 2005, Volume 30. F11.


Buschman, L.L., P.E. Sloderbeck, and M.D. Witt. 2005. Efficacy of VIP and crylab events in corn for the control of southwestern corn borer and corn earworm, 2004. Arthropod Mangement Tests 2005, Volume 30. M2.


Whitworth, J., P. Sloderbeck, G. Wilde, R. Higgins, K. Y. Zhu, and L. Buschman. 2004. Western Corn Rootworm: Kansas Areawide Management Program Summary. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin MF 2642


Sloderbeck, P., L. Buschman, and R. Higgins. 2004. Soybean stem borer management trials, 2001-2003. K-State Research - Extension Center. Report of Progress 927, SRP 910. pp.41-44.


Qureshi, J.A., Buschman, L.L., Ramaswamy, S.G., Throne, J.E. and Whaley, P.M. 2004. Evaluation of rubidium chloride and cesium chloride incorporated in a meridic diet to mark Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) for dispersal studies. Environmental Entomology 33: 487-498.


Li, H. R., B. Oppert, R. A. Higgins, F. Huang, K. Y. Zhu, and L. L. Buschman. 2004. Comparative analysis of proteinase activities of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera : Crambidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (8): 753-762.


Li, H. R., J. Gonzalez-Cabrera, B. Oppert, J. Ferre, R. A. Higgins, L. L. Buschman, G. A. Radke, K. Y. Zhu, and F. Huang. 2004. Binding analyses of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac with membrane vesicles from Bacillusthuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinianubilalis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 323: 52-57.


Qureshi, J.A., Buschman, L.L., Throne, J.E., and Ramaswamy, S.B. 2004. Oil-soluble dyes incorporated in meridic diet of Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as markers for adult dispersal studies. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 836-845.


Qureshi, J.A., Buschman, L.L., Throne, J.E., Whaley, P.M. and Ramaswamy, S.B. 2004. Rubidium chloride and cesium chloride sprayed on maize plants and evaluated for marking Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in mark-recapture dispersal studies. Environmental Entomology 33: 930-940.


Hyde, J., Martin, M.A., Preckel, P.V., Buschman, L.L., Edwards, C.R., Sloderbeck, P.E. and Higgins, R.A. 2003. The value of Bt corn in southwest Kansas: A Monte Carlo simulation approach. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 28: 15-33.


Li, H., Oppert, B., Zhu, K. Y., Higgins, R. A., Huang, F. and Buschman, L. L. 2003. Transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. Entomologica Sinica 10: 155-166.


Yang, X. M., L. L. Buschman, K. Y. Zhu, and D. C. Margolies. 2002. Susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activity in two spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) after selection with three insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 399-406.


Onstad, D. W., C. A. Guse, P. Porter, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, F. B. Peairs, and G. B. Chronholm. 2002. Modeling the development of resistance by stalk-boring Lepidoptera (Crambidae) in areas with transgenic corn and frequent insecticide use. Journal of Economic Entomology; 95: 1033-1043.


Guse, C. A., D. W. Onstad, L. L. Buschman, P. Porter, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, G. B. Chronholm, and F. B. Peairs. 2002. Modeling the development of resistance by stalk-boring Lepidoptera (Crambidae) in areas with irrigated transgenic corn. Environmental Entomology 31: 676-685.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and H. Li. 2002. Survival of Kansas Dipel-resistant European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. Journal of Economic Entomology; 95: 614-621.


Zhu, K. Y., G. E. Wilde, R. A. Higgins, P. E. Sloderbeck, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Shufran, R. J. Whitworth, S. R. Starkey, and F. He. 2001, Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in areawide–managed cornfields in north central Kansas. Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (4): 929-934.


Yang, X.-M., D. C. Margolies, K. Y. Zhu, and L. L. Buschman. 2001. Host plant-induced changes in detoxification enzymes and susceptibility to pesticides in the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 381-387.


Huang, F., L. Buschman, and R. Higgins. 2001. Larval feeding behavior of Dipel-resistant and susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis on diet ocntaining Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel ES). Entomological Experiementalis et Applicata. 98: 141-148.


Ortman, E. E., B. D. Barry, L. L. Buschman, D. D. Calvin, J. Carpenter, G. P. Dively, J. E. Foster, B. W. Fuller, R. L. Hellmich, R. A. Higgins, T. E. Hunt, G. P. Munkvold, K. R. Ostlie, M. E. Rice, R. T. Roush, M. K. Sears, A. M. Shelton, B. D. Siegfried, P. E. Sloderbeck, K. L. Steffey, F. T. Turpin, and J. L. Wedberg. 2001. Transgenic insecticidal corn: The agronomic and ecological rationale for its use. BioScience 51: 900-902.


Yang, X. M., K. Y. Zhu, L. L. Buschman, and D. C. Margolies. 2001. Comparative susceptibility and possible detoxification mechanisms for selected miticides in Banks grass mite and two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 25: 293-299.


Sloderbeck, P., L. Buschman, T. Dumler, and R. Higgins. 2000. Economic comparison of Bt-corn refuge-planting strategies for south central and southwestern Kansas. K-State Research and Extension Report of Progress 856. pp. 29-32.


Messenger, M.T., L.L. Buschman and J.R. Nechols. 2000. A comparison of sampling techniques for spider mites and spider mite predators in corn. Southwestern Entomologist 25: 221-227


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1999. Transgenic Bt-plants: Successes, challenges, and strategies. Pestology: Proceedings, II Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Conference. Mumbai, India. Vol. 23: 2-29.


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1999. Heritability and stability of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 89: 449-454.


Huang, F., K. Y. Zhu, L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and B. Oppert. 1999. Comparison of midgut proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 65: 132-139.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, R. A. Higgins, and W. H. McGaughey. 1999. Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Dipel ES) in the European corn borer. Science 284: 965-967.


Huang, F., L. L. Buschman, and R. A. Higgins. 1999. Susceptibility of different instars of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Economic Entomology 92: 547-550.


Higgins, R., L. Buschman, P. Sloderbeck, and V. Martin. 1999. Evaluation of corn borer resistance and grian yield for Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at St. John, KS. K-State Rept. Prog. 835. pp. 125-134.


Buschman, L., P. Sloderbeck, R. Higgins, and M. Witt. 1999. Corn borer resistance and grain yield for Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at Garden City, KS, 1998. K-State Rept. Prog. 837. pp. 25-29.


Buschman, L., P. Sloderbeck, R. Higgins, and M. Witt. 1999. Corn borer resistance and grain yield for Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at Garden City, KS, 1998. K-State Rept. Prog. 837. pp. 25-29.


Wilde, G. E., R. J. Whitworth, R. A. Shufran, K. Y. Zhu, P. E. Sloderbeck, R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1998. Rootworm areawide management project in Kansas. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 15: 335-349.


NC-205 (including R. Higgins and L. Buschman. 1998. Supplement to NCR-602. Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management. 10 pp.


NC-205 (including R. Higgins and L. Buschman. 1998. Supplement to NCR-602. Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management. 10 pp.


Bowling, R., R. A. Higgins, and L. Buschman. 1997. Corn earworm larval development on Bt and non-Bt corn. International Plant Resistance to Insects Newsletter. Vol. 23.


Huang, F., R. A. Higgins, and L. L. Buschman. 1997. Baseline susceptibility and changes in susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki under selection pressure in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1137-1143.


Ostlie, K. R., W. D. Hutchison, R. L. Hellmich, J. F. Witkkowski, J. L. Wedberg, K. L. Steffey, P. E. Sloderbeck, B. D. Siegfried, M. E. Rice, C. D. Pilcher, D. W. Onstad, C. E. Mason, L. C. Lewis, D. A. Landis, A. J. Keaster, F. Huang, R. A. Higgins, M. J. Haas, M. E. Gray, K. L. Giles, J. E. Foster, P. M. Davis, D. D. Calvin, L. L. Buschman, P. C. Bolin, B. D. Barry, D. A. Andow, and D. N. Alstad. 1997. Bt corn and European corn borer: Long-term success through resistance management. NC Regional Research Project NC-205 and NC Regional Extension Publication NCR-602. 18 pp.


Lhaloui, S., L. Buschman, M. El Bouhssini, K. Starks, D. Keith and K. El Hossaini. 1992. Control of Mayetiola species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) with Carbofuran in bread wheat, durum wheat and barley with yield loss assessment and its economic analysis. Al Awamia 77: 55-73


Lhaloui, S., L. Buschman, M. El Bouhssini, A. Amri, J.H. Hatchett, D. Keith, K. Starks, and K. El Houssaini. 1992. Infestations of Mayetiola spp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in bread wheat, durum wheat and barley. Results of the five annual surveys in the major cereal growing regions of Morocco. Al Awamia 77: 21-53


Buschmann, L.L., F.R. Lamm, P.E. Sloderbeck and G.L. Dick. 1985. Chemigation in corn - effects of nonemulsifiable oils and sprinkler package on the efficacy of corn borer (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 1331-1336