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Department of Entomology

Department of Entomology
123 W. Waters Hall
1603 Old Claflin Place
Kansas State University
Manhattan KS 66506-4004

785-532-6154
785-532-6232 fax
entomology@ksu.edu

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Reese, John C.

Reese, John C.

John C. Reese is currently in phased retirement and will retire from his position, effective 6/30/16.

 

Professor 125 West Waters Hall
Manhattan KS 66506-4004
Phone: 785-532-4708 Fax: 785-532-6232
jreese@ksu.edu

Area(s) of Specialization:

Aphid salivary enzymes in insect-plant interactions, functionality of genes in aphid salivary glands, plant resistance to aphids, plant tolerance to aphid feeding damage


View My Curriculum Vitae

Bio Brief

My research efforts center around plant resistance to insects, especially the quantification of sorghum tolerance to greenbug feeding damage. We have focused on tolerance because greenbug have developed numerous biotypes that were virulent to previously resistant cultivars. Tolerance is plant production in spite of insect attack, and therefore does not have the potential of imposing selection pressure on greenbug populations for still more virulent biotypes. We have also looked at the molecular genetics of aphid-plant interactions, especially the role of aphid salivary gland genes. We have silenced a transcript, for the first time in an aphid, and have shown that this particular transcript is absolutely essential to the survival of the aphid on its host plant.



Education

B.S. Zoology, University of Missouri, 1969
M.S. Entomology , University of Missouri, 1971
Ph.D. Entomology(minor in Botany), University of Wisconsin, 1975

Teaching

  • Introduction to Plant Resistance to Pests [ENTOM 635]
  • Economic Entomology [ENTOM 300]
  • Plant Resistance to Insects [ENTOM 745]
  • Introduction to Plant Resistance to Pests [ENTOM 732]

Research

Most of our recent work has been in close collaboration with Ken Kofoid, a sorghum geneticist at the KSU Agricultural Research Center at Hays and Mitch Tunstra in the Department of Agronomy. One of our more interesting techniques is the use of the SPAD chlorophyll meter for assessing chlorophyll loss due to greenbug feeding damage. We have recently identified a number of selections that lose far less chlorophyll than the susceptible checks. We are in the process of releasing a number of tolerant lines.



Since insect salivary gland secretions appear to be involved in many plant-insect interactions, we have begun investigations of the molecular genetics of insect salivary secretions. These investigations are under the direction of Jerry Reeck in the Department of Biochemistry. We have purified and isolated an animal pectinase for the first time, although pectinase activity was identified in insects many years ago. We now have many clones of genes expressed in insect salivary glands of several species of insects.



Recent shifts in direction include developing a plant resistance program for the soybean aphid (found for the first time in Kansas in 2002), and conducting feeding behavior studies with the electronic monitoring system. We are also collaborating with Shawn Hutchinson to study the dynamics of the spread of the soybean aphid.



Aphid Feeding Behavior - these are pea aphids feeding on fava beans.



Publications

Mutti, N. S., J. Louis, L. K. Pappan, K. Pappan, K. Begum, M-S. Chen, Y. Park, N. Dittmer, J. Marshall, J. C. Reese and G. R. Reeck (2008) A novel protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on host plants. Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci. USA. 105: 965-9969

Zhu, L., X. Liu, L. Liu, R. Jeannotte, J. C. Reese, M. Harris, J. J. Stuart, and M.-S. Chen. 2008. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) attack causes dramatic shift in carbon/nitrogen metabolism in wheat. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 21: 70-78.


Dogramaci, M., Z.B. Mayo, R. Wright and J. Reese. Categories of resistance, antibiosis and tolerance to biotype I greenbug (Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Homoptera: Aphididae) in four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Poales: Gramineae) hybrids. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80: 183-191.


Liu, X., J. Bai, L. Huang, L. Zhu, X. Liu, N. Weng, J. C. Reese, M. Harris, J. J. Stuart, and M.-S. Chen. 2007. Gene expression of different wheat genotypes during attack by virulent and avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae. J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 2171-2194.


Pegadaraju, B., J. Louis, V. Singh, J.C. Reese, J. Bautor, B.J. Feys, G. Cook, J.E. Parker, and J. Shah. 2007. Phloem-based resistance to green peach aphid is controlled by Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 without its signaling partner. Plant Journal 52: 332-341


Diaz-Montano, J., J.C. Reese, W.T. Schapaugh and L.R. Campbell. 2007. Chlorophyll loss caused by soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding on soybean. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1657-1662


Diaz-Montano, J., J. C. Reese, J. Louis, L. R. Campbell, and W. T. Schapaugh. 2007. Feeding behavior by the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 984-989.


Mutti, N. S., Y. Park, J. C. Reese, and G. R. Reeck. 2006. RNAi knockdown of a salivary transcript leading to lethality in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. J. Insect Science 6:38.


Diaz-Montano, J., J. C. Reese, W. T. Schapaugh, and L. R. Campbell. 2006. Characterization of antibiosis and antixenosis to the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in several soybean genotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 1884-1889.


Chen, M-S., X. Liu, Y-C Zhu, J.C. Reese and G.E. Wilde. 2006. Genes encoding a group of related small secreted proteins from the gut of Hessian fly larvae [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. Insect Science 13: 339-348


Nagaraj, N., J.C. Reese, M.R. Tuinstra, C.M. Smith, P.S. Amand, M.B. Kirkham, K.C. Kofoid, L.R. Campbell, and G.E. Wilde. 2005. Molecular mapping of sorghum genes expressing tolerance to damage by greenbug (Homoptera : Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 595-602.


Zhu, L., C. M. Smith, and J. C. Reese. 2005. Categories of resistance to greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotype K in wheat lines containing Aegilops tauschii genes. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 2260-2265.


Pegadaraju, V., C. Knepper, J. Reese, and J. Shah. 2005. Premature leaf senescence modulated by the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 gene is associated with defense against phloem-feeding green peach aphid. Plant Physiology 139: 1927-1934


Liu, X.M., A.K. Fritz, J.C. Reese, G.E. Wilde, B.S. Gill, and M.S. Chen. 2005. H9, H10, and H11 compose a cluster of Hessian fly-resistance genes in the distal gene-rich region of wheat chromosome 1AS. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110: 1473-1480.


Shen, Z., K. Pappan, N.S. Mutti, Q-J. He, M. Denton, Y. Zhang, M.R. Kanost, J.C. Reese, and G. R. Reeck. 2005. Pectinmethylesterase from the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae: cDNA isolation and dwquencing, genetic origin, and expression of the recombinant enyzyme. Journal of Insect Science 5:21


Dogramaci, M., ZB Mayo, R.J. Wright, and J.C. Reese. 2005. Tritrophic interaction of parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphididae), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum)(Homoptera: Aphididae), and greenbug-resistant sorghum hybrids. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 202-209.


Chen, M-S, J.P. Fellers, J.J. Stuart, J.C. Reese, and X. Liu. 2004. A group of related cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from Hessian fly [Mayetioladestructor (say)] salivary glands. Insect Molecular Biology 13:101-108.


Shen, Z., M. Denton, N. Mutti, K. Pappan, M.R. Kanost, J.C. Reese, and G.R. Reeck. 2003. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils. Journal of Insect Science 3:24


Sloderbeck, P. E., R. A. Higgins, and J. C. Reese. 2003. Soybean aphid and soybean stem borer. Kansas State University Research and Extension. Manhattan, KS.


Hutchinson, J. M. S., N. J. Leathers, J. Herynk, L. R. Campbell, and J. C. Reese. 2003. Agricultural plant pathogen disease pathways: Predicting the dispersal of exotic soybean aphids. In, Papers of the Appl. Geography Conferences. Vol. 26. (Refereed publication, even though it is a part of a conference proceedings) G. A. Tobin and B. E. Montz (eds.). 471-478.


Sloderbeck, P. E., J. C. Reese, R. J. Whitworth, C. M. Smith, R. A. Higgins, W. T. Schapaugh, R. E. Wolf, and D. J. Jardine. 2003. The soybean aphid: A new pest in Kansas. Kansas State University Agr. Expt. Station and Cooperative Extension Service. MF-2582.


Nagaraj, N., J.C. Reese, M.B. Kirkham, K. Kofoid, L.R. Campbell, and T.M. Loughin. 2002. Relationship between chlorophyll loss and photosynthetic rate in greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) damaged sorghum. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 75:101-109.


Agrama, H.A., G.E. Widle, J.C. Reese, L.R. Campbell, and M.R. Tuinstra. 2002. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with greenbug resistance and tolerance in Sorghum bicolor. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104: 1373-1378.


Nagaraj, N., J.C. Reese, M.B. Kirkham, K. Kofoid, L.R. Campbell, and T. Loughin. 2002. Effect of greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)(Homoptera: Aphididae), biotype K on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of tolerant and susceptible sorghum hybrids. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 75: 299-307.


Deol, G.S., Reese, J.C., Gill, B.S., and G.E. Wilde and L. Campbell. 2001. Comparative chlorophyll losses in susceptible wheat leaves fed upon by Russian wheat aphid or greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 74:192 – 198.


Flinn, M., C.M. Smith, J.C. Reese, and B. Gill. 2001. Categories of resistance of greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotype I in Aegilops tauschii germplams. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 558-563.


Reese, J. C., W. F. Tjallingii, M. van Helden, & E. Prado. 2000. Waveform comparisons among AC and DC systems for electronic monitoring of aphid feeding behavior. In, Principles and Applications of Electronic Monitoring and other Techniques in the Study of Homopteran Feeding Behavior. G. Walker & E. A. Backus (eds.). Thomas Say Pubs., Entomol. Soc. Am. pp. 70-101.


Shen, Z.C., G. Manning, J.C. Reese, and G.R. Reeck. 1999. Pectin methylesterase from the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): purification and characterization. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 29: 209-214


Barbehenn, R. V., J. C. Reese, and K. S. Hagen. 1999. The food of insects. In, Ecological Entomology (Second Edition). C. B. Huffaker and A. P. Gutierrez (eds.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY. 83-121.


Reese, J.C. and C. D. Pilcher. 1999. Greenbug. In, ESA Handbook of Corn Insects. K. L. Steffey et al., (eds.). Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48-49.


Ma, R.Z., J.C. Reese, W.C. Black, IV, and P. Bramel-Cox. 1998. Chlorophyll loss in a greenbug-susceptible sorghum due to pecinases and pectin fragments. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 71: 51-60


Girma, M., K.D. Kofoid, and J.C. Reese. 1998. Sorhum germplasm tolerant to greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding damage as measured by reduced chlorophyll loss. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 71: 108-115.


Formusoh, E.S., J.C. Reese, and G. Bradfisch. 1997. A miniaturized bioassay system for screening compounds delterious to greenbugs (Homoptera: Aphididae) on artificial diets. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 70: 323-328


Deol, G.S., J.C. Reese and B.S. Gill. 1997. A rapid, nondestructive technique for assessing chlorophyll loss from greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding damage on sorghum leaves. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 70: 305-312


Shen, Z.C., J.C. Reese, and G.R. Reeck. 1996. Purification and characterization of polygalacturonase from the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleroptar: Curculionidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 26: 427-433


Girma, M., G.E. Wilde, J.C. Reese, and E.A. Backus. 1994. Committed phloem ingestion of aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) difficulties in its application to host-plant resistance studies. Environmental Entomology 23: 1061-1065


Reese, J. C., D. C. Margolies, E. A. Backus, S. Noyes, P. Bramel Cox, and A. G. O. Dixon. 1994. Characterization of aphid host plant resistance and feeding behavior through use of a computerized insect feeding monitor. In, History, Development, and Application of AC Electronic Insect Feeding Monitors. M. M. Ellsbury, E. A. Backus, and D. L. Ullman (eds.). Thomas Say Pub., Entomol. Soc. Am., Lanham, MD. 52-72.


Reese, J.C., J.R. Schwenke, P.S. Lamont, and D.D. Zehr. 1994. Importance and quantification of plant tolerance in crop pest-management programs for aphids - greenbug resistance in sorghum. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 11: 255-270


Ng, S.S., F.M. Davis, and J.C. Reese. 1993. Southwestern corn-borer (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) - comparative developmental biology and food-consumption and utilization. Journal of Economic Entomology 86: 394-400


McCauley, G.W., D.C. Margolies, and J.C. Reese. 1992. Field assessment of greenbug (Homoptera, Aphididae) demography on corn. Environmental Entomology 21: 1072-1076


Reese, J. C., R. Z. Ma, and W. C. Black IV. 1992. Aphid pectinases, cell wall fragments, and biotype evolution. In, Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships. S. B. J. Menken, J. H. Visser, and P. Harrewijn (eds.). Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 289-290.


Girma, M., G.E. Wilde and J.C. Reese. 1992. Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera, Aphididae) feeding behavior on host and nonhost plants. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 395-401


Ma, R.Z., W.C. Black, and J.C. Reese. 1992. Genome size and organization in an aphid (Schizaphis graminum). Journal of Insect Physiology 38: 161-165


Formusoh, E.S., G.E. Wilde, and J.C. Reese. 1992. Reproduction and feeding-behavior of greenbug biotype-E (Homoptera, Aphididae) on wheat previously fed upon by aphids. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 789-793


Ma, R., J. C. Reese, W. C. Black IV, and P. Bramel Cox. 1991. Detection of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in greenbug saliva. In, Proc. Aphid Plant Interactions: Populations to Molecules. MP 132. USDA and Oklahoma State Univ. 291.


Girma, M., G. Wilde and J.C. Reese. 1990. Influence of temperature and plant growth stage on development, reproduction, life-span and intrinsic rate of increase of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera, Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 19: 1438-1442.


Noyes, S., D.C. Margolies, J.C. Reese, A. Dixon, and P. Bramelcox. 1990. Computer acquisition and analysis of insect feeding monitor data. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83: 1224-1231


Reese, J. C., P. J. Bramel Cox, A. G. O. Dixon, D. J. Schmidt, R. Ma, S. Noyes, D. C. Margolies, and W. C. Black IV. 1990. Novel approaches to the development of sorghum germplasm resistant to greenbugs. In, Proc. 7th Intl. Symp, Insect Plant Relationships. T. Jermy and A. Szentesi (eds.). Symp. Biol. Hung. 39:523-526.


McCauley, G. W., Jr., D. C. Margolies, and J. C. Reese. 1990. Feeding behavior, fecundity, and weight of sorghum reared and corn reared greenbugs on corn. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 55:183-190.


Ma, R., J. C. Reese, W. C. Black IV, and P. J. Bramel Cox. 1990. Detection of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase from salivary secretions of living greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Insect Physiol. 36:507-512.


Dixon, A. G. O., P. J. Bramel Cox, J. C. Reese, and T. L. Harvey. 1990. Mechanisms of resistance and their interactions in twelve sources of resistance to biotype E greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) in sorghum. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:234-240.


McCauley, G. W., Jr., D. C. Margolies, R. D. Collins, and J. C. Reese. 1990. Rearing history affects demography of greenbugs (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 19:949-954.


Dixon, A. G. O., P. J. Bramel Cox, and J. C. Reese. 1990. Feeding behavior of biotype E greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its relationship to resistance in sorghum. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:241-246.


Reese, J. C., A. C. Waiss, Jr., and D. M. Legacion. 1989. Biochemical methodologies and approaches for determining the basis of maize resistance to insects. In, Toward Insect Resistant Maize for the Third World: Proc. of the Intl. Symp. on Methodologies for Developing Host Plant Resistance to Maize Insects. J. A. Mihm, B. R. Wiseman and F. M. Davis (eds.). Mexico, D. F. CIMMYT 244-252.


Reese, J. C., P. J. Bramel Cox, R. Ma, A. G. O. Dixon, T. W. Mize, and D. J. Schmidt. 1989. Greenbug and other pest resistance in sorghum. In, Proc. 44th Annual Corn Sorgh. Indust. Res. Conf. 1-29.


Schmidt, D. J. and J. C. Reese. 1988. The effects of physiological stress on black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) larval growth and food utilization. J. Insect Physiol. 34:5-10.


Reese, J. C. and C. W. Holyoke, Jr. 1987. Allelochemics affecting insect growth and development. In, Handbook of Naturally Occurring Pesticides. N. B. Mandava and E. D. Morgan (eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Vol. III: Insect Growth Regulators, Part B, pp. 21 66.


Holyoke, C. W, Jr. and J. C. Reese. 1987. Acute insect toxicants from plants. In, Handbook of Naturally Occurring Pesticides. N. B. Mandava and E. D. Morgan (eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Vol. III: Insect Growth Regulators, Part B, pp. 67-118.


Reese, J. C., D. J. Schmidt, and T. W. Mize. 1987. Physiological interactions between phytophagous insects and their hosts. In, Allelochemicals: Role in Agriculture and Forestry. G. R. Waller(ed.). ACS Symp. Series 330. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D. C. 463-476.


Schmidt, D. J. and J. C. Reese. 1986. Sources of error in nutritional index studies of insects on artificial diet. J. Insect Physiol. 32:193-198.


Reese, J. C. and M. D. Field. 1986. Defense against insect attack in susceptible plants: Black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) growth on corn seedlings and artificial diet. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79:372-376.


Bramel Cox, P., A. G. O. Dixon, J. C. Reese, and T. L. Harvey. 1986. New approaches to the identification and development of sorghum germplasm resistant to biotype E greenbug. Proc. 41st Ann. Corn Sorgh. Indust. Res. Conf. 1-16.


Schroeder, A. C., C. E. Mason, E. A. K. Blankenship, and J. C. Reese. 1986. Evaluation of pinto bean, wheat germ and lima bean diets for rearing European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 79:964-969.


Reese, J. C. and D. J. Schmidt. 1986. Physiological aspects of plant insect interactions. Iowa State J. Res. 60:545-567.


Hagen, K. S., R. H. Dadd, and J. C. Reese. 1984. The food of insects. In, Ecological Entomology. C. B. Huffaker and R. L. Rabb, (eds.) John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 79-112.


Reese, J. C. 1983. Nutrient allelochemical interactions in host plant resistance. In, Plant Resistance to Insects. P. A. Hedin (ed.) Am. Chem. Soc. Symposium Series No. 208:231-243.


Reese, J. C., B. G. Chan, and A. C. Waiss, Jr. 1982. Effects of cotton condensed tannin, maysin (corn), and pinitol (soybeans) on Heliothis zea growth and development. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:1429-1436.


Reese, J. C. 1981. Insect dietetics: Complexities of plant insect interactions. In, Topics in Endocrinology and Nutrition. G. Bhaskaran, S. Friedman and J. G. Rodriguez (eds.). Plenum Press, New York. 317-335.


Dreyer, D. L., J. C. Reese, and K. C. Jones. 1981. Aphid feeding deterrents in sorghum; Bioassay, isolation, and characterization. J. Chem. Ecol. 7:273-283.


Reese, J. C., B. G. Chan, N. R. Malm, and A. C. Waiss, Jr. 1981. Feeding sites of bollworm larvae on cotton. Environ. Entomol. 10:81-84.


Reese, J. C. 1979. Interrelationships of allelochemics with nutrients in herbivore food. In, Herbivores: Their Interaction with Secondary Plant Metabolites. G. A. Rosenthal and D. H. Janzen (eds.) Academic Press, New York. 309-330.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Beck. 1978. Interrelationships of nutritional indices and dietary moisture in the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) digestive efficiency. J. Insect Physiol. 24:473-479.


Reese, J. C. 1978. Chronic effects of plant allelochemics in insects nutritional physiology. In, Insect/Host Plant Symposium, R. F. Chapman and E. A. Bernays (eds.) Entomol. Exp. Appl. 24:625-631.


Reese, J. C. 1977. The effects of plant biochemicals on insect growth and nutritional physiology. ACS Symposium Series, No. 62, Host Plant Resistance to Pests, P. A. Hedin (ed.) 129-152.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Beck. 1976a. Effects of allelochemics on the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon; Effects of p benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and duroquinone on larval growth, development, and utilization of food. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 69:59 67.


Beck, S. D. and J. C. Reese. 1976. Insect Plant interactions: Nutrition and metabolism. Recent Adv. Phytochemistry 10:41 92.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Beck. 1976c. Effects of allelochemics on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon; Effects of resorcinol, gallic acid, and phloroglucinol on growth, development and utilization of food. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 69:99 1003.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Beck. 1976b. Effects of allelochemics on the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon; Effects of catechol, L dopa, dopamine, and chlorogenic acid on larval growth, development, and utilization of food. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 69:68 72.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Beck. 1976d. Effects of certain allelochemics on growth and development of the black cutworm. Symp. Biol. Hung. 16:217 221.


Reese, J. C. and S. D. Carlson. 1974. Scanning electron microscopy of final instar larval mouth parts of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 67:301 308.


Reese, J. C., L. M. English, T. R. Yonke, and M. L. Fairchild. 1972. A method for rearing black cutworms. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:1047 1050.


Reese, J. C., T. R. Yonke, and M. L. Fairchild. 1972. Fine structure of midgut epithelium in larvae of Agrotis ipsilon. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:242 251.