Department of Entomology
123 W. Waters Hall
1603 Old Claflin Place
Kansas State University
Manhattan KS 66506-4004

785-532-6154
785-532-6232 fax
entomology@ksu.edu

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Zhu, Kun Yan

Zhu, Kun YanProfessor

25 Waters Hall
Manhattan KS 66506

Phone: (785) 532-4721

Fax: (785) 532-6232

kzhu@ksu.edu

Area(s) of Specialization:
Insect Toxicology and Molecular Biology


View My Curriculum Vitae

 

 

Education

B.S. Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 1982
M.S. Biology (Insect Toxicology), Utah State University, Logan UT, 1989
Ph.D. Biology (Insect Toxicology), Utah State University, Logan UT, 1992
Postdoctoral Research Associate, Molecular Toxicology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 1992- 1994

Teaching

ENTOM 620: Insecticides: Properties and Laws
ENTOM 830: Molecular Entomology
ENTOM 857: Toxicology of Insecticides

Research

RNA Interference in Insects
RNA interference (RNAi) has been known as common machinery for sequence-specific gene silencing through the RNAi pathway in eukaryotic organisms. However, there are significant differences in the efficiency of RNAi among different taxonomic groups of insects. For example, coleopterans, hemipterans and orthopterans have a robust RNAi response whereas lepidopterans and dipterans often show poor RNAi response. Such differences could be in part due to different stabilities of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and different efficiencies in cellular uptake of dsRNA among different insects. Our studies are to address the questions related to the stability and cellular uptake of dsRNA in different insects. Our studies also focus on the identification of candidate genes and the development of dsRNA delivery methods (e.g., nanoparticle-based approaches) potentially to be used for RNAi-based management of insect pests. Our studies are expected to provide new insights into possible mechanisms leading to differential RNAi efficiencies among different insects and help researchers develop effective RNAi-based technologies for insect pest management.

Insecticide Detoxification and Resistance
The most significant challenge for successful control of insect pests by using chemical insecticides and transgenic plants expressing insecticidal molecules is the development of resistance to these control agents in insect populations. Although a large number of the genes potentially involved in conferring insecticide toxicity, detoxification and resistance have been revealed from various insect species based on the genomics research, our knowledge on the role of these genes essential to insect pest management has been very limited. Our research focuses on: 1) functional analysis of insecticide target genes (e.g., acetylcholinesterases); 2) roles and up-regulations of detoxification genes (e.g., cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-transferases); and 3) molecular analysis of the genes possibly involved in conferring Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxicity and resistance in insects. We expect that these studies will help researchers develop effective strategies for insect pest control and resistance management.

Chitin Biosynthesis and Inhibition
Chitin is the second most abundant biological polymer after cellulose and is synthesized in arthropods (insects, spiders, etc.), nematodes and fungi. In insects, chitin is synthesized in epidermal and certain epithelial cells, and is a vital component of exoskeletons and cuticular linings of trachea and peritrophic matrixes. Despite decades of intensive research, many events associated with chitin formation and deposition are still obscure or only partially understood. Our study focuses on the molecular biology of chitin biosynthetic pathway and the mechanism of chitin synthesis inhibition by benzoylphenyl urea-based insecticides in arthropods. We expect to shed new light on chitin biosynthetic pathway and better understand the mechanism of action of the insecticides targeting the chitin biosynthetic pathway in arthropods. Because chitin is a vital component of the arthropod exoskeleton and peritrophic matrixes, and is not present in vertebrates, results from this study are expected to help researchers develop safe and environmentally friendly approaches for insect pest management.

Publications

  1. Zhu K.Y., Merzendorfer H., Zhang W., Zhang J. & Muthukrishnan S. Biosynthesis, turnover and function of chitin in insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. (in press for 2016).
  2. Liu Y., Wu H., Yu Z., Guo Y., Zhang J., Zhu K. Y. & Ma E. 2015. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals. Chemosphere 139: 310-317.
  3. Guo Y., Zhang X., Wu H., Yu R., Zhang J., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y. & Ma E. 2015. Identification and functional analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP9AQ2 involved in deltamethrin detoxification from Locusta migratoria. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 122: 1-7.
  4. Kim Y. H., Soumaila Issa M., Cooper A. M. W. & Zhu K. Y. 2015. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 120: 109-117 (No. 4 Most Downloaded Articles from ScienceDirect in the Last 90 Days as of 07/09/2015).
  5. Zhang J., Ge P., Li D., Guo Y., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2015. Two homologous carboxylesterase genes from Locusta migratoria with different tissue expression patterns and roles in insecticide detoxification. J. Insect Physiol. 77: 1-8.
  6. Xiao D., Gao X., Xu J., Liang X., Li Q., Yao J. & Zhu K. Y. 2015. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis plays a predominant role in cellular uptake of double-stranded RNA in the red flour beetle. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 60: 68-77 (No. 19 Most Downloaded Articles from ScienceDirect in the Last 90 Days as of 07/30/2015).
  7. Zhang X., Mysore K., Flannery E., Michel K., Severson D. W., Zhu K. Y. & Duman-Scheel M. 2015. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae. J. Vis. Exp. 97: e52523 (https://www.jove.com/video/52523/chitosaninterfering-rna-nanoparticle-mediated-gene-silencing-disease).
  8. Li D., Zhang J., Wang Y., Liu X., Ma E., Sun Y., Li S., Zhu K. Y. & Zhang J. 2015. Two chitinase 5 genes from Locusta migratoria: Molecular characteristics and functional differentiation. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 58: 46-54.
  9. Liang X., Xiao D., He Y., Yao J., Zhu G., Zhu K. Y. 2015. Insecticide-mediated up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16: 2078-2098.
  10. Kharel K., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y., Campbell J. F. & Subramanyam B.  2015.  Influence of temperature and artificially-created physical barriers on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aerosol. J. Stored Prod. Res. 60: 36-42.
  11. Zhang X., Wang J., Zhang M., Qin G., Li D., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2014.Molecular cloning, characterization and positively selected sites of the glutathione S-transferase family from Locusta migratoria. PLOS ONE 9(12): e114776.
  12. Chen H., Zhang H., Throne J. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Transcript analysis and expression profiling of three heat shock protein 70 genes in the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insect Sci. 21: 415-428.
  13. Tucker A. M., Campbell J. F., Arthur F. H. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Efficacy of aerosol applications of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults and eggs. J. Econ. Entom. 107: 1284-1291.
  14. Kharel K., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y., Campbell J. F. & Subramanyam B.  2014. Susceptibility of different life stages of Tribolium confusum to pyrethrin aerosol: Effects of flour source on insecticidal efficacy. J. Pest Science 87: 295-300.
  15. Xiao D., Liang X., Gao X., Yao J. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. The lethal giant larvae gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular properties and roles in larval and pupal development as revealed by RNA interference. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15: 6880-6896.
  16. Zhang J., Li D., Ge P., Guo Y., Zhu K. Y., Ma E., Zhang J.  2014. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. PLOS ONE 9(4): e94809.
  17. Yao J., Buschman L. L., Lu N., Khajuria C. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Changes in gene expression in the larval gut of Ostrinia nubilalis in response to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin ingestion. Toxins 6: 1274-1294.
  18. Tucker A. M., Campbell J. F., Arthur F. H. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Horizontal transfer of methoprene by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum Jacquelindu Val.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 57: 73-79.
  19. Ananthakrishanan  R., Sinha D. K., Murugan M., Zhu K.Y., Chen M.-S., Zhu Y. C., & Smith C. M.  2014. Comparative gut transcriptome analysis reveals differences between virulent and avirulent biotypes of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia. Arthropod-Plant Inte. 8: 79-88.
  20. Tucker A. M., Campbell J. F., Arthur F. H. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Mechanisms for horizontal transfer of methoprene from treated to untreated Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).  J. Stored Prod. Res. 57: 36-42.
  21. Kharel K., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y., Campbell J. F. & Subramanyam B.  2014. Evaluation of synergized pyrethrin aerosol for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107: 462-468.
  22. Campbell J. F., Arthur F. H. & Zhu K. Y. 2014. Spatial pattern in aerosol insecticide deposition inside a flour mill. J. Econ. Entomol. 107: 440-454.
  23. Scott J. G., Michel K., Bartholomay L., Siegfried B. D., Hunter W. B., Smagghe G., Zhu K. Y., Douglas A. E. 2013. Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi. J. Insect Physiol. 59: 1212-1221 (No. 3 Most Downloaded Paper from ScienceDirect in the Last 90 Days of 04/25/2014).
  24. Zhang J., Li D., Ge P., Yang M., Guo Y., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J.  2013. RNA interference revealed the roles of two carboxylesterase genes in insecticide detoxification in Locusta migratoria. Chemosphere 93: 1207-1215.
  25. Liu X., Li F., Li D., Ma E., Zhang W., Zhu K. Y. & Zhang J.  2013. Molecular and functional analysis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. PLOS ONE 8(8): e71970.
  26. Zhang X. & Zhu K. Y. 2013. Biochemical characterization of chitin synthase activity and inhibition in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Sci. 20: 158-166.
  27. Chen H., Zhang H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E. 2013. Performance of diapausing parasitoid wasps, Habrobracon hebetor, after cold storage. Biol. Control 64: 186-194.
  28. Qin G., Jia M., Liu T., Zhang X., Guo Y., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2013. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. PLOS ONE 8(3): e58410. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058410.
  29. Willmott A. L., Cloyd R. A. & Zhu K. Y. 2013. Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 247-256.
  30. Rong S., Zhang X., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2013. RNA interference to reveal roles of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene during molting process in Locusta migratoria. Insect Sci. 20: 109-119.
  31. Zhu K.Y. 2013. RNA interference: A powerful tool in entomological research and a novel approach for insect pest management. Insect Sci. 20: 1-3 (No. 3 Most Downloaded Paper in 2013).
  32. Liu X.,  Zhang H., Li S., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2012. Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 42: 902-910.
  33. Yao J., Buschman L. L., Oppert B., Khajuria C. & Zhu K. Y. 2012. Characterization of cDNAs encoding serine proteases and their transcriptional responses to Cry1Ab protoxin in the gut of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae.  PLOS ONE 7(8): e44090. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044090.
  34. Zhang X., Zhang J., Park Y. &Zhu K. Y. 2012.  Identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 42: 674-682.
  35. Zhang X., Li T., Zhang J., Li D., Guo Y., Qin G., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2012. Structural and catalytic role of two conserved tyrosines in Delta class glutathione S-transferase from Locusta migratoria. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 80: 77-91.
  36. Chen H., Zhang H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E. 2012. Induction of reproductive diapause in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) when reared at different photoperiods at low temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 41: 697-705.
  37. Guo Y., Zhang J., Yu R., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y. & Ma E. 2012. Identification and characterization of two new cytochrome P450 genes from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Chemosphere 87: 709- 717.
  38. Lang G.-J., Zhu K. Y. & Zhang C.-X. 2012. Can acetylcholinesterase serve as a target for developing more selective insecticides? Curr. Drug Targets 13: 495-501.
  39. Pang Y.-P., Brimijoin S, Ragsdale D. W., Zhu K. Y. & Suranyi R.  2012. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides. Curr. Drug Targets 13: 471-482.
  40. Lu Y., Park Y., Gao X., Zhang X., Yao J., Pang Y.-P., Jiang H. & Zhu K. Y. 2012. Cholinergic and non-cholinergic functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes revealed by gene-silencing in Tribolium castaneum.  Sci. Rep. 2: 288. doi:10.1038/srep00288.
  41. Lu Y., Pang Y.-P., Park Y., Gao X., Yao J., Zhang X. & Zhu K. Y. 2012. Genome organization, phylogenies, expression patterns and three-dimensional protein models of two acetylcholinesterase genes from the red flour beetle. PLOS ONE 7(2): e32288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032288.
  42. Prasain K., Nguyen T. D. T., Gorman M. J., Barrigan L., Peng Z., Kanost M. R., Syed L. U., Li J., Zhu K. Y. & Hua D. H. 2012. Redox potentials, laccase oxidation, and antilarval activities of substituted phenols. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 20: 1679-1689.
  43. Guo Y., Zhang J., Yang M., Yan L., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y. & MaE. 2012. Comparative analysis of cytochrome P450-like genes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen): Expression profiling and response to insecticide exposure. Insect Sci. 19: 75-85.
  44. Qin G., Jia M., Liu T., Zhang X., Guo Y., Zhu K. Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2012. Heterologous expression and characterization of a sigma glutathione S-transferase involved in carbaryl detoxification from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). J. Insect Physiol. 58: 220-227.
  45. Sutton A. E., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y., Campbell J. F. & Murray L. W.  2011.  Residual efficacy of synergized pyrethrin + methoprene aerosol against larvae of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47: 399-406.
  46. Jia M., Qin G. H., Liu T., Zhang J. Z., Zhang X. Y., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y. P., & Ma E. B. 2011.  Expression and characterization of a sigma-class glutathione S-transferase of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Agric. Sci. China 10: 1570-1576.   
  47. Khajuria C., Buschman L. L., Chen M.-S., Siegfried B. D. & Zhu K. Y.  2011. Identification of a novel aminopeptidase P-like gene (OnAPP) possibly involved in Bt toxicity and resistance in a major corn pest (Ostrinia nubilalis). PLOS ONE 6(8): e23983. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023983.
  48. Zhang J., Zhang X., Arakane Y., Muthukrishnan S., Kramer K. J., Ma E. &Zhu K. Y. 2011.  Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase-like gene cluster (AgCht5) possibly derived from tandem duplications in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41: 521-528.
  49. Zhang J., Zhang X., Arakane Y., Muthukrishnan S., Kramer K. J., Ma E. &Zhu K. Y. 2011.  Comparative genomic analysis of chitinase and chitinase-like genes in the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). PLOS ONE 6(5): e19899. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019899.
  50. Qin G., Jia M., Liu T., Xuan T., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y., Ma E. & Zhang J. 2011. Identification and characterization of ten glutathione S-transferase genes from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Pest Manag. Sci. 67: 697-704.
  51. Khajuria C. Buschman L. L., Chen M.-S., Zurek L. & Zhu K. Y. 2011. Characterization of six antibacterial response genes from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut and their expression in response to bacterial challenge. J. Insect Physiol. 57: 345-355.
  52. Zhu Y. C., Guo Z., Chen M.-S., Zhu K. Y., Liu X. F. & Scheffler B.  2011. Major putative pesticide receptors, detoxification enzymes, and transcriptional profile of the midgut of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 106: 296-307.
  53. Zhang J., Zhang J., Yang M., Jia Q.-D., Ma E., Guo Y. & Zhu K. Y. 2011. Genomics-based approaches to screening carboxylesterase-like genes potentially involved in malathion resistance in oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis). Pest Manag. Sci. 67: 183-190.
  54. Zhang J., Liu X., Zhang J., Li D., Sun Y., Guo Y., Ma E. & Zhu K. Y. 2010. Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 40: 824-833 (No. 3 Most Downloaded Paper 2011).
  55. Zhang X., Zhang J. & Zhu K. Y.  2010. Chitosan/double-stranded RNA nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference to silence chitin synthase genes through larval feeding in the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). Insect Mol. Biol. 19: 683-693.
  56. Khajuria C., Buschman L. L.,Chen M.-S., Muthukrishnan S. & Zhu K. Y.  2010. A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic membrane and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 40: 621-629.
  57. Zhang D.-D., Zhu K. Y. & Wang C.-Z.2010. Sequencing and characterization of six cDNAs putatively encoding three pairs of pheromone receptors in two sibling species, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta. J. Insect Physiol. 56: 586-593.
  58. Li X., Zhang X. & Zhu K. Y. 2010. Studies on insecticidal activity and effect of Tripterygium wilfordii total alkaloids on glutathione S-transferase activity and gene expression in the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Northwest A&F Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 38: 151-157 (Chinese with English abstract).
  59. Zhao P., Zhu K. Y. & Jiang H. 2010. Heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of a greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) acetylcholinesterase encoded by a paralogous gene (ace-1). J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 24: 51-59.
  60. Coutinho-Abreu I. V., ZhuK. Y. & Ramalho-OrtigaoM.  2010. Transgenesis and paratransgenesis to control insect-borne diseases: Current status and future challenges. Parasitol. Int. 59: 1-8 (No. 4 Most Downloaded Paper 2011).
  61. Li X., Zhang X., Zhang J., Zhang X., Starkey S. R. & Zhu K. Y. 2009. Identification and characterization of eleven glutathione S-transferase genes from the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39: 745-754 (Science Direct TOP25 Hottest Article 2010).
  62. Pang Y.-P., Ekström F., Polsinelli G. A., Gao Y., Rana S., Hua D. H., Andersson B., Andersson P. O., Peng L., Singh S. K., Mishra R. K., Zhu K. Y., Fallon A. M., Ragsdale D. W. & Brimijoin S. 2009. Selective and irreversible inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. PLOS ONE 4(8): e6851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006851.
  63. Khajuria C., Zhu Y. C., Chen M.-S., Buschman L. L., Higgins R. A., Yao J., Cresop A. L. B., Siegfried B. D., Muthukrishnan S. & Zhu K. Y.  2009. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis):  Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicityand resistance. BMC Genomics 10: 286 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-286.
  64. Yang M. L., Zhang J. Z., Zhu K.Y., Xuan T., Liu X. J., Guo Y. P. & Ma E. B. 2009. Mechanisms of organophosphate resistance in a field population of oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 71: 3-15.
  65. Pang Y.-P., Singh S. K., Gao Y., Lassiter T. L., Mishra R. K., Zhu K. Y. & Brimijoin S. 2009.  Selective and irreversible inhibitors of aphid acetylcholinesterases: Steps toward human-safe insecticides. PLOS ONE 4(2): e4349. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004349.
  66. Guedes R. N. C., Zhu K. Y., Opit G. P. & ThroneJ.E. 2008. Differential heat shock tolerance and expression of heat-inducible proteins in two stored-product psocids. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 1974-1982.
  67. Guedes R. N. C., Campbell J. F., Arthur F. H., Opit G. P., Zhu K. Y. & ThroneJ.E.  2008.  Acute lethal and behavioral sublethal responses of two stored-product psocids to surface insecticides.Pest Manag. Sci. 64: 1314-1322.
  68. Jin-Clark Y., Anderson T. D. & Zhu K. Y.  2008.  Effect of alachlor and metolachlor on toxicity of chlorpyrifos and major detoxification enzymes in the aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54: 645-652.
  69. Yang M., Zhang J., Zhu K. Y., Xuan T., Liu X., Guo Y. & Ma E. 2008.  Increased activity and reduced sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase associated with malathion resistance in a field population of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 91: 32-38.
  70. Anderson T. D., Jin-Clark Y., Begum K., Starkey S. R. & Zhu K. Y. 2008. Gene expression profiling reveals decreased expression of two hemoglobin genes associated with increased consumption of oxygen in Chironomus tentans exposed to atrazine: A possible mechanism for adapting to oxygen deficiency. Aquatic Toxicol. 86: 148-156.
  71. Wu H.-H., Zhu K. Y., Guo Y.-P., Zhang X.-M. & Ma E.-B. 2008. Comparative studies of substrate and inhibitor specificities of glutathione S-transferases in six tissues of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Agri. Sci. China 7: 462-468.
  72. Li H., Buschman L. L., Zhu K. Y., Huang F. & Oppert B. 2007. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Biopestic. Int. 3: 96-107.
  73. Li H., Buschman L. L., Huang F., Zhu K. Y., Bonning B. & Oppert B. 2007. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab in Ostrinia nubilalis is ineffective against transgenic corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1862-1870.
  74. Zhu K. Y., Heise S., Zhang J., Anderson T. D. & Starkey S. R. 2007. Comparative studies on effects of three chitin synthesis inhibitors on common malaria mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 44: 1047-1053.
  75. Mohandass S. M., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E.  2007. Biology and management of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored products.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 43: 302-311.
  76. Daves C. A., Higgins R. A., Sloderbeck P. E., Wilde G. E., Whitworth R. J., Zhu K. Y. & Buschman L. L.  2007.  How Kansas crop consultants scout for western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in field corn. Am. Entomol. 53: 8-11.
  77. Rakotondravelo M., Anderson T. D., Charlton R. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2006.  Sublethal effects of three pesticides on activities of selected target and detoxification enzymes in the aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 51: 360-366.
  78. Rakotondravelo M., Anderson T. D., Charlton R. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2006.  Sublethal effects of three pesticides on larval survivorship, growth and macromolecule production in the aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 51: 352-359.
  79. Zhang J. & Zhu K. Y.  2006.  Characterization of a chitin synthase cDNA and its increased mRNA level associated with decreased chitin synthesis in Anopheles quadrimaculatus exposed to diflubenzuron.  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 36: 712-725.
  80. Ahmad A., Wilde G. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2006.  Evaluation of effects of coleopteran-specific Cry3Bb1 toxin on earthworms exposed to soil containing corn roots or biomass.  Environ. Entomol. 35: 976-985.
  81. Mohandass S. M., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E.  2006.  Hydroprene prolongs development time and increases mortality in wandering-phase Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.  J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1509-1519.
  82. Mohandass S. M., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E.  2006.  Hydroprene prolongs developmental time and increases mortality of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.  J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1007-1016.
  83. Mohandass S. M., Arthur F. H., Zhu K. Y. & Throne J. E.  2006.  Hydroprene: Mode of action, current status in stored-product pest management, insect resistance and future prospects. Crop Protect. 25: 902-909.
  84. Zhu K. Y., Wilde G. E., Sloderbeck P. E., Buschman L. L., Higgins R. A., Whitworth R. J., Bowling R. A., Starkey S. R. & He F.  2005. Comparative susceptibility of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults to selected insecticides in Kansas. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 2181-2187.
  85. Mahroof R., Zhu K. Y., Neven L., Subramanyam B. & Bai J.  2005.  Expression patterns of three heat shock protein 70 genes among developmental stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 141A: 247-256.
  86. Li H., Oppert B., Higgins R. A., Huang F., Buschman L. L. & Zhu K. Y.  2005.  Susceptibility of Dipel-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to individual Bacillus thuringiensis protoxins. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 1333-1340.
  87. Li H., Oppert B., Higgins R. A., Huang F., Buschman L. L., Gao J.-R. & Zhu K. Y.  2005.  Characterization of cDNAs encoding three trypsin-like proteinases and mRNA quantitative analysis in Bt-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 35: 847-860 (TOP25 Most Downloaded Article 2005).
  88. Hartzer K. L., Zhu K. Y. & Baker J. E.  2005.  Phenoloxidase in larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Molecular cloning of the proenzyme cDNA and activity levels in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 59: 67-79.
  89. Ahmad A., Wilde G. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2005.  Detectability of coleopteran-specific Cry3Bb1 toxin in soil and its effect on nontarget surface and below-ground arthropods. Environ. Entomol. 34: 385-394.
  90. Mahroof R., Zhu K. Y. & Subramanyam B.  2005.  Changes in expression of heat shock proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in relation to
    developmental stage, exposure time, and temperature.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 98: 100-107.
  91. Li H., González-Cabrera J., Oppert B., Ferré J., Higgins R. A., Buschman L. L., Radke G. A., Zhu K. Y. & Huang F.  2004.  Binding analyses of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac with membrane vesicles from Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 323: 52-57.
  92. Anderson T. D. & Zhu K. Y.  2004.  Synergistic and antagonistic effects of atrazine on the toxicity of organophosphorodithioate- and organophosphorothioate-insecticides to Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 80: 54-64. (TOP25 Most Downloaded Article 2004-2005)
  93. Li H., Oppert B., Higgins R. A., Huang F., Buschman L. L. & Zhu K. Y.  2004. Comparative analysis of proteinase activities of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34: 753-762.
  94. He Y.-P., Ma E.-B. & Zhu K. Y.  2004.  Characterizations of general esterases in relation to malathion susceptibility in two field populations of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 78: 103-113.
  95. Ma E.-B., He Y.-P. & Zhu K. Y.  2004.  Comparative studies of acetylcholinesterase purified from two field populations of the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis): Implications of insecticide resistance.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 78: 67-77. (TOP25 Most Downloaded Article 2004-2005)
  96. Li H., Oppert B., Zhu K. Y., Higgins R. A., Huang F. & Buschman L. L.  2003.  Transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins.  Entomol. Sinica 10: 155-166.
  97. Ayala J., Dowdy A. K., Beeman R. W. & Zhu K. Y.  2003.  Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va from the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 54: 47-54.
  98. Gao J.-R. & Zhu K. Y.  2002.  Increased expression of an acetylcholinesterase gene may confer organophosphate resistance in the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 73: 164-173.
  99. McKenzie S. A., Whitworth J., Wilde G. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2002.  Acetylcholinesterase activity in Harpluspennsylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) fed western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults killed by Slam.  J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 75: 229-232.
  100. Gao J.-R., Kambhampati S. & Zhu K. Y.  2002.  Molecular cloning and characterization of a greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase possibly evolved from a duplicate gene lineage.  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32: 765-775. (TOP25 Most Downloaded Article 2002-2003)
  101. Yang X.-M., Buschman L. L., Zhu K. Y. & Margolies D. C.  2002.  Susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activity in two spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) after selection with three insecticides.  J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 399-406.
  102. Jin-Clark Y., Lydy M. J. & Zhu K. Y.  2002.  Effects of atrazine and cyanazine on chlorpyrifos toxicity in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21: 598-603.
  103. Al-Deeb M, Wilde G. E. & Zhu K. Y.  2001. Effect of insecticides used in corn, sorghum, and alfalfa on the predator Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 1353-1360.
  104. Yang X.-M., Zhu K. Y., Buschman L. L. & Margolies D. C.  2001. Comparative susceptibility and possible detoxification mechanisms for selected miticides in Banks grass mite and twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 25: 293-299.
  105. Zhu K. Y., Wilde G. E., Higgins R. A., Sloderbeck P. E., Buschman L. L., Shufran R. A., Whitworth R. J., Starkey S. R. & He F. 2001. Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in north central Kansas. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 929- 934.
  106. Gao J.-R. & Zhu K. Y.  2001. An acetylcholinesterase purified from the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) with some unique enzymological and pharmacological characteristics. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 31: 1095-1104.
  107. Yang X.-M., Margolies D. C., Zhu K. Y. & Buschman L. L. 2001. Host plant-induced changes in detoxification enzymes and susceptibility to pesticides in the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 381-387.
  108. Zhu K. Y., Gao J.-R. & Starkey S. R. 2000. Organophosphate resistance mediated by alterations of acetylcholinesterase in a resistant clone of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 68: 138-147.
  109. Gao J.-R. & Zhu K. Y. 2000. Comparative toxicity of selected organophosphate insecticides against resistant and susceptible clones of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 4717-4722.
  110. Zhu K. Y. & He F. 2000. Elevated esterases exhibiting arylesterase-like characteristics in an organophosphate-resistant clone of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 67: 155-167.
  111. Perez-Mendoza J., Fabrick J. A., Zhu K. Y. & Baker J. E.  2000. Alterations in esterases are associated with malathion resistance in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 31-37.
  112. Huang F., Zhu K. Y., Buschman L. L., Higgins R. A. & Oppert B.  1999.  Comparison of midgut proteinases in Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 65: 132-139.
  113. Zhu K. Y. & Gao J.-R.  1999.  Increased activity associated with reduced sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase in organophosphate-resistant greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Pestic. Sci. 55: 11-17.
  114. Wilde G. E., Whitworth R. J., Shufran R. A., Zhu K. Y., Sloderbeck P. E., Higgins R. A. & Buschman L. L.  1998.  Rootworm areawide management project in Kansas.  J. Agric. Entomol. 15: 335-349.
  115. Gao J.-R., Rao J. V., Wilde G. E. & Zhu K. Y.  1998.  Purification and kinetic analysis of acetylcholinesterase from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 39: 118-125.
  116. Baker J. E., Fabrick J. A. & Zhu K. Y.  1998.  Characterization of esterases in malathion-resistant and susceptible strains of the pteromalid parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae.  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28: 1039-1050.
  117. Zhu K. Y. & Gao J.-R.  1998.  Kinetics and variability of esterases in organophosphate-susceptible and resistant greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 62: 135-145.
  118. Guedes R. N. C. & Zhu K. Y.  1998.  Organophosphate resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica:  Survey and biochemical mechanisms.  Recent Res. Devel. Entomol. 2: 1-7.
  119. Guedes R. N. C., Zhu K. Y. & Kambhampati S.  1998.  Altered acetylcholinesterase associated with organophosphate resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) populations from Brazil and the United States.  J. Appl. Entomol. 122: 269-273.
  120. Guedes R. N. C. & Zhu K. Y.  1998.  Characterization of malathion resistance in a Mexican population of Rhyzopertha dominica.  Pestic. Sci. 53: 15-20.
  121. Guedes R. N. C., Zhu K. Y., Kambhampati S. & Dover B. A.  1998.  Characterization of acetylcholinesterase purified from the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 119C: 205-210.
  122. Guedes R. N. C., Kambhampati S., Dover B. A. & Zhu K. Y.  1997.  Biochemical mechanism of organophosphate resistance in Brazilian and U. S. populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  Bull. Entomol. Res. 87: 581-586.
  123. Guedes R. N. C., Zhu K. Y., Kambhampati S. & Dover B. A.  1997.  An altered acetylcholinesterase conferring negative cross-insensitivity to different insecticidal inhibitors in organophosphate resistant lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 58: 55-62.
  124. Guedes R. N. C., Zhu K. Y., Dover B. A. & Kambhampati S.  1997.  Partial characterization of phosphotriesterases from organophosphate-susceptible and resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 57: 156-164.
  125. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1997.  Validation of a point mutation of acetylcholinesterase in Colorado potato beetle by polymerase chain reaction coupled to enzyme inhibition assay.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 57: 28-35.
  126. Zhu K. Y., Lee S. H. & Clark J. M.  1996.  A point mutation of acetylcholinesterase associated with azinphosmethyl resistance and reduced fitness in Colorado potato beetle.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 55: 100-108.
  127. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1996.  Addition of a competitive primer can dramatically improve the specificity of PCR amplification of specific alleles.  BioTechniques 21: 586-590.
  128. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1995.  Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase in Colorado potato beetle.  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25: 1129-1138.
  129. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1995.  Rapid construction of nested deletions of recombinant plasmid DNA for dideoxy sequencing.  BioTechniques 18: 222-224.
  130. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1995.  Comparisons of kinetic properties of acetylcholinesterases purified from azinphosmethyl-susceptible and resistant strains of Colorado potato beetle.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 51: 57-67.
  131. Zhu K. Y. & Clark J. M.  1994.  Purification and characterization of acetylcholinesterase from the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 24: 453-461.
  132. Argentine J. A., Zhu K. Y., Lee S. H. & Clark J. M.  1994.  Biochemical mechanisms of azinphosmethyl resistance in isogenic strains of Colorado potato beetle.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 48: 63-78.
  133. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1992.  Catalytic and inhibitory properties of a major molecular form of acetylcholinesterase isolated from Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).  Comp. Biochem. Physiol.  103B: 147-151.
  134. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1992.  Significance of carboxylesterases and insensitive acetylcholinesterase in conferring organophosphate resistance in Lygus hesperus populations.  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.  43: 223-231.
  135. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1992.  Enzymological and inhibitory properties of  acetylcholinesterase purified from Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).  Insect. Biochem. Mol. Biol.  22: 245-251.
  136. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1992.  Molecular properties of acetylcholinesterase purified from Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).  Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.  22: 253-260.
  137. Zhu K. Y., Brindley W. A. & Hsiao T. H.  1991.  Isolation and partial purification of  acetylcholinesterase from Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 790-794.
  138. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1990.  Properties of esterases from Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) and the roles of the esterases in insecticide resistance.  J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 725-732.
  139. Zhu K. Y. & Brindley W. A.  1990. Acetylcholinesterase and its reduced sensitivity to inhibition by paraoxon in organophosphate-resistant Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).  Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 36: 22-28.
  140. Liu S.-S., Li Z.-Q., Xu L.-X., Zhu K. Y., Zheng Q.-F.  1989.  Studies on the biology and chemical control of the pumpkin caterpillar (Daiphania indica (Saunders).  China Vegetables 5: 14-17 (Chinese).
  141. Zhu K. Y.  1988.  Description of a new species of Belocera from China (Homoptera: Delphacidae).  Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 13: 397-399 (Chinese with English abstract).
  142. He J. H., Zhu K. Y. & Tong X. W.  1988.  Descriptions of four new species of the genus Ropronia Provancher from China (Hymenoptera: Roproniidae).  Entomotaxonomia 10: 207-214 (Chinese with English abstract).
  143. Zhu K. Y. & Chen X.  1986.  Studies on the synergism of three vegetable oils to deltamethrin against Dendrolimuspunctatus Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).  Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis 12: 299-303 (Chinese with English abstract).
  144. Zhu K. Y. 1985.  New record of Delphacidae from China - Purohita theognis Fennah.  Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis 11: 236 (Chinese with English abstract).
  145. Xu S. P. & Zhu K. Y.  1984.  A preliminary report of studies on species of planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae) from Lishui Prefecture, Zhejiang Province.  Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis 10: 221-230 (Chinese with English abstract).
  146. Zhu K. Y. 1983.  The color-spot variations of Laodelphax striatella (Fallen) and their recognition.  Plant Protection 9: 16 (Chinese).